Sodium saccharine, or sodium ortho-sulphobenzimide with molecular formula C7H4NNaO3S, is the salt form of saccharine, an artificial sweetener. It is available in anhydrous and di-hydrated form. It is an odorless, white powder. It is 300 to 500 times sweeter than sugar (sucrose). Major application of Sodium saccharine is the food industry as an additive in different products. It is used as a low calorie sweetener and stabilizer in a variety of food and drinks. In bakeries it is used to sweeten baked goods, breads, cookies and muffins. Due to its rapidly dissolving nature in water, it is used as an artificial sweetener in carbonated beverages and sodas.

Basically saccharine is a chemical additive and non-nutritive sweetener used as substitute to Sugar in beverages and foods, personal care products such as toothpaste, tabletop sweeteners, and animal feed. It also has an application in metalworking fluid. There are four primary chemical compositions of saccharine: 1) Sodium saccharine 2) Calcium Saccharine 3) Acid Saccharine 4) Research grade Saccharine.

Saccharine was first discovered by the chemists Ira Remsen and Constantine Fahlberg in 1878 at Johns Hopkins University. Although saccharine was produced shortly after its discovery, it was mainly used for diabetics and saccharine does not cause blood sugar levels to spike in the same level compared to sugar. Saccharine was massively popular during the First World War as a substitute to compensate for sugar shortages due to rationing. The use of saccharine as tabletop sweetener was common in America and Europe since 1917. It was introduced to the other countries after 1923. The graph of consumption of saccharine goes upward between the Wars, with an increase in the number of products that uses saccharine. The shortage of sugar during the Second World War caused an increase in use of saccharine.

There are four primary chemical compositions of saccharine:

1). Sodium Saccharine.
2). Calcium Saccharine.
3). Acid Saccharine.
4). Research grade Saccharine.

There are two main processes for making saccharine: First one is the Remsen-Fahlberg process and the second one is the Maumee, or Sherwin-Williams process, named upon the organization that further modified the Maumee process.

Remsen-Fahlberg process

This process was named after the two scientists who discovered the sodium saccharine. In this process toluene is synthesized with chlorosulfonic acid to produce ortho and para-toluenesulfonyl chloride. Subsequent treatment with a potassium permanganate and ammonia forms the corresponding toluene sulfonamides.

From Cream

Ortho-Toluene-sulfonamide is distributed from the para-isomer and ortho-toluene sulfonamide is then oxidized to ortho-sulfa-moylbenzoic acid, which is on heating cyclized to saccharine. In this reaction para-Toluene sulfonamide can occur as a by-product in saccharine.

Maumee process

In early 1950, a new process for saccharine production was developed by USA-based Maumee Chemical Company. Earlier saccharine is produced from anthracitic acid by continuous production process. After the merger of Maumee Chemical Company and PMC Specialties group, the process was improved to a batch process by using purified methyl anthranilate, as a starting material which naturally occurs in grapes.

From Cream

In this production method anthranilate is first digitized to form 2-carbomethoxy-benzenediazonium chloride. Methyl anthranilate on oxidation and sulfonation yields 2-carbomethoxy-benzenesulfonyl chloride. 2-carbomethoxy-benzenesulfonyl chloride on amidation and acidification forms insoluble acid saccharine. Insoluble saccharine with subsequent addition of sodium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide gives soluble sodium or calcium saccharine salt.

Sodium saccharine is the salt form of saccharine, an artificial sweetener and it is 300 to 500 times sweeter than sugar. Similar to other many salts, when it is dissolved in water, it separates into its component parts. These two properties give a wide range of application to sodium saccharine in food and chemical industry

Food Industry

Sodium saccharine is 300 to 500 times sweeter than sugar (sucrose). In the food industry it is used as a non nutritive sweetener and stabilizer in a variety of food and cold drinks. In bakery industries it is used to sweeten baked goods, breads, cookies and muffins. In artificially sweetened diet drinks and sodas it is used because it is rapidly dissolved in water. Marzipan, plain, sweetened and fruit-flavored yogurt, jams/jellies and ice creams are the products that contain sodium saccharine.

Chemical Industry

Sodium saccharine is used as an intermediate chemical ingredient in the Herbicides and pesticide manufacturing. It is used as a catalytic agent in the manufacture of anaerobic adhesives (an adhesive that stiffens without existence the oxygen). They are commonly known as sealants or locking compounds which are used to seal closed or secure fitting parts.

Electroplating Industry

Nowadays saccharine is used as an additive in metalworking fluid and the adhesive in electroplating industry. In nickel electroplating sodium saccharine is used for bringing brighter finish to nickel. It is also used for gold and palladium electroplating baths.

Pharmaceutical Industry

It is used as a coating on drugs in the pharmaceutical industry. It is regularly used in chewable multivitamin and calcium tablets for improving their taste. It is a common ingredient in toothpastes, personal health care products and cosmetics.

Product Identification

CAS No. : 128-44-9
Molecular Formula : C7H5NO3S.Na
Synonym : Saccharine sodium salt
H.S.Code : 925.11.00

Sodium Saccharine Specification

Appearance White crystalline powder
Purity % 99 (min)
Ammonium salt ppm 25(max)
Arsenic ppm 3.0(max)
Loss or Drying ppm 15 (Max)
Heavy metal ppm 10 (Max)
P-toluene sulfonamide ppm 10 (Max)
O-toluene sulfonamide ppm 10 Max
Benzoic acid-sulfonamide ppm 25 (Max)
Particle size mesh 8-12 ; 20-40 ; 40-80
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